-to talk about things which had happened before other things in the past (действие, которое произошло ранее другого действия в прошлом): We weren’t hungry. We had just had lunch. /He said she had bought a new flat. /We had done everything by 2 o’clock.
+ had + VIII/ed: I had bought everything by 12. /He had seen her before they met.
- hadn’t + VIII/ed: They hadn’t got there by 7. /She said he had failed everything.
? Had… VIII/ed: Had he done the task till the evening? /Had they arrived before him?
Markers: by 2, by that time, before.